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Oceanography (BETA)

From the depths of the Mid-Atlantic's submarine canyons to its sandy beaches, explore the physical and chemical properties of the ocean through our Oceanography theme, now under development.

Soft Sediments (by grain size)

This layer classifies soft-sediments based on their grain size. Source data include USGS usSeabed: Atlantic coast offshore surficial sediment data (Data series 118, version 1.0) and the USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database (2005), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center. Point-based data were interpolated using krigging tools to create this layer. Resulting values were classified based on grain-size according to the Wentworth (1922) scale. This classification process resulted in the following classes: clay (< 0.002 mmm), silt (0.024 – 0.06), very fine sand (0.06 – 0.125 mm), fine sand (0.125 – 0.25 mm), medium sand (0.25 – 0.5 mm), coarse sand (0.5 – 1.0 mm), very coarse sand (1 – 2 mm), and Gravel/granule (> 2 mm). Finally, point data was interpolated using kriging to create the resulting raster layer. The spatial resolution of this layer is 500 meters.

Source: USGS; analysis by TNC

Notes:

This dataset was created for the Northwest Atlantic Marine Ecoregional Assessment (NAMERA) in order to map soft sediments based on their grain size (in mm). This version (2) is an update of the original 2010 soft sediments layer using new data. THIS DATASET WAS NOT CREATED FOR NAVIGATIONAL PURPOSES AND AS SUCH SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR NAVIGATION.

Seabed Forms

Seabed forms classify seafloor topography into discrete units. Derived from The Nature Conservancy's digital bathymetry, seabed forms can be described by a combination of just two variables: seabed position and slope. Seabed position (also referred to as topographic position or slope position) describes the topography of the area surrounding a particular cell. We based our seabed position calculations on Fels and Zobel's (1995) method, which evaluates the elevation differences between the model cell and the surrounding cells within a specified distance.

Source: NOAA; analysis by TNC

Notes:

This data product was created as part of the Northwest Atlantic Marine Ecoregional Assessment. The Nature Conservancy developed this science-based ecoregional assessment for the Northwest Atlantic Marine region (Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina). This assessment synthesizes information on oceanography, chemistry, geology, biology, and social science to inform decisions about coastal and marine ecosystems. The ten categories of targets identified as the primary structure for the marine ecoregional assessment are: coastal and estuarine habitats, benthic habitats, diadromous fish, demersal fish, pelagic fish, forage fish, nearshore shellfish, shorebirds and seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles.

Bathymetry

This shows regional bathymetry data as well as high resolution bathymetry data, where it exists, from multiple sources. Included here are regional data compiled from the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC) and U.S. Coastal Relief Model, submarine canyon and shelf/slope break bathymetry from NOAA's Okeanos Explorer missions, and nearshore high resolution bathymetry compiled by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information. See individual layer descriptions in the Data Catalog for more information.

Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC)

Notes:

These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation.

Regional Bathymetry / Bathymetry

This raster dataset represents region-wide bathymetry data that covers the entire Mid-Atlantic region out to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). It was compiled by The Nature Conservancy primarily from NOAA's Coastal Relief Model and Atlantic margin bathymetry data compiled by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center, University of New Hampshire. The raster cell size is approximately 100 meters.

Source: NOAA, CCOM/JHC

Notes:

Not to be used for navigation.

NOAA NOS Hydrographic Survey Data / Bathymetry

This data displays detailed color shaded relief visualizations of high-resolution quality-controlled seafloor elevation from NOAA / National Ocean Service (NOS) Hydrographic Survey Bathymetric Attributed Grids (BAGs) in U.S. coastal waters. Many near-shore areas have been mapped at high resolution (often 1 meter or better). The depths are usually relative to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) datum. BAG files are gridded, multi-dimensional bathymetric data files and is the standard NOS hydrographic data file for public release.

Source: NOAA National Geophysical Data Center

Notes:

These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation. For official navigation products, please refer to the U.S. nautical charts available from the NOAA Office of Coast Survey.

Okeanos Explorer Bathymetry / Bathymetry

The data displayed here is a compilation of data collected during the Atlantic Canyons Mapping cruises. The multibeam products are generated by the Okeanos Explorer's Mapping Data Team at the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping Joint Hydrographic Center at the University of New Hampshire after each mission. For each cruise, additional data are available by visiting the Atlantic Canyons Mapping Data Viewer.

Source: NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

Notes:

These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation.

Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Fall Max 2012 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Fall 2012 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Fall Max 2013 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Fall 2013 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Spring Max 2012 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Spring 2012 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Spring Max 2013 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Spring 2013 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Summer Max 2012 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Summer 2012 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Summer Max 2013 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Summer 2013 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Winter Max 2012 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Winter 2012 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts Winter Max 2013 / Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts for Winter 2013 and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Fall Max 2011 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Fall 2011 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Fall Max 2012 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Fall 2012 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Spring Max 2011 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Spring 2011 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Spring Max 2012 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Spring 2012 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Spring Max 2013 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Spring 2013 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Summer Max 2011 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Summer 2011 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Summer Max 2012 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Summer 2012 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Summer Max 2013 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Summer 2013 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Winter Max 2011 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Winter 2011 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Winter Max 2012 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Winter 2012 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Winter Max 2013 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Winter 2013 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP Fall Max 2013 / Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP for Fall 2013 and were generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- January, February, December; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

Submarine Canyons

This data layer represents major canyons of the Mid-Atlantic Coast. Approximate boundaries were digitized on-screen over a raster bathymetry layer. Canyon names come from NOAA charts and other various sources. These boundaries were created primarily for cartographic purposes and do not represent ecological boundaries. There are many submarine canyons in addition to those included here – this layer was created in an attempt to show the “major” canyons on maps.

Source: The Nature Conservancy

Notes: